Positive and Negative Effects of Population Growth
The rising population has always been a topic of debate. A majority of people believe that it has a negative impact on society. Too much and speedy growth of the population would strain the natural resources and lead to starvation, health ailments, and even death. On the other hand, an increase in population also has a few positive effects. This is seen in terms of an economic boost, low mortality rate, increased innovation, etc. In this article, we will cover both the negative and positive effects of population growth on societies.
Positive effects of population growth
Economic Boost: The fundamental advantage of population growth is seen in the terms of economic growth. Studies have reported that the doubling of the overall population of the world has led to a two-thirds increase in per capita income. This shows low mortality rates in pregnant women, children, and infants.
Improved Trade Structures
Another important benefit of population growth is seen in the form of better trade structures. This is because nations with higher populations have a more innovative workforce. China and Japan are the two best examples of countries that have massive population growth and are considered to be among the largest economies and key exporters in the world.
The growth of the population puts pressure on society to innovate and serve the masses in the best way possible. One of these innovations is seen in the form of cultivation of high-yielding crops to improve food production to meet the growing food needs in the country.
Better Social Health
Due to advancements in medical science, a rise in population signifies low mortality rates in people. The advanced health measures have also helped to curb population growth.
Negatives Effects of population growth
An unrestricted increase in population acts as a hindrance to the economic development of the nation. In countries that are economically poor and technologically backward, a rise in population results in reduced output by reducing the per capita accessibility of capital. Let us see in detail how population growth impairs the economy.
Lowers the speed of Capital Formation
In underdeveloped nations, high birth rates and low life expectancy cause a high percentage of dependents. Around half of the population in these nations only consumes and doesn’t produce anything. This reduces the availability of capital per head that in turn reduces workforce productivity. It results in reduced income, and savings, that adversely impact capital formation.
Needs more Investment
In economically backward nations, a quick increase in the rate of population leads to an increase in the needs of demographic investment. This lowers their ability to save money. Population growth also leads to more school funding, property tax dollars, federal grants to local coffers, and revenue for local businesses. All this causes an imbalance between investment needed and the obtainability of investible funds.
Negatively Impacts the per Capital Income
Rapid population growth impacts per capita income in the economy. For the economy to rise, it is very important for the population growth to be lesser than the per capita income. If population growth goes beyond the speed at which the economy is growing, then it causes the per capita income to fall.
Due to the rapid increase in population, a lot of people enter the labor market in search of employment. The government may fail to provide employment to each one of them. This increases unemployment, disguised employment, and underemployment in countries.
Leads to Food Problems
Due to the rising population, the amount of food produced is not adequate to meet the needs of the people. The under-developed nations that have rapidly increasing populations are faced with issues related to food scarcity. Despite their measures taken to improve agricultural production, they aren’t able to feed the increasing population.
Inadequate food supply causes undernourishment in the people that reduce their productivity. Also, it lowers the production capacity of the farmers and laborers. The shortage of food forces the nation to import food grains that put unreasonable stress on their foreign exchange incomes.
Gives Rise To Poverty
Another very important disadvantage of a rapid increase in population is that it results in poverty. Countries that have underdeveloped economies are largely impacted. The explosion of population causes people to spend a major chunk of their salary on the development of their children.
In this way, the rate of capital formation and savings remains low. Reduced per capita income, and commodity price results in a drastic increase in the cost of living. The problem is characterized by scarcity of essential goods, the absence of innovative industrial and agricultural technological equipment, mass unemployment, and low standard of living, etc.