Migration is a phenomenon of moving between cities, states or countries in search of higher studies, work opportunities, or better lifestyle. People are generally seen to migrate from rural to urban regions for enhancement in different spheres of life.
A majority of people are seen to migrate from their developing country to developed country for progress, and development in their life. Let us see how international migration impacts both the countries in positive and negative way.
Impact of International migration on “source country”
Source country, or the country to which a person belongs and leaves it to move to another country. This is the country that loses its people. It is positively and negatively impacted by international migration. Let us see what are these effects:
- Migrants make money in other country and send the earnings, and remittances to its own country.
- Reduces pressure on resources, and jobs in the country. This also prevents unemployment among people.
- Migrants who return back are more skilled, experienced and talented. This in turn benefits the source country and results in greater economic progress of that place. However, talented migrants who preserve ties with their native nations stimulate the country by transfer of capital and technology. Return migrants can give a boost to the economic development of the country.
- The density of the population, and birth rate of this area gets reduced
- Source countries reduces in the size of potential workforce as a larger chunk of skilled people leave the country.
- When a lot of male gender migrates to other countries causes gender disproportions in the country
- The loss of a person from rural areas, impact on the level of output and development of rural areas.
- Migration leads to brain drain when a major section of migrants leaves the country.
- Where the population in the developing country reduces, the population in the developed country increases. In this way, migration leads to unevenness in the population in both the nations. This results in uneven distribution of the population in countries.
- Migration is a key cause behind increasing nuclear family culture. In few families, children are brought up without both their parents. This can cause long distance relations and can adversely impact the relations of people.
Impact of International migration on “host country”
Host country, or the country to which a person comes for enhancement in education, employment or any other reason gets affected in below ways:
- Migration of people who are highly proficient, contribute to production, and knowledge for the overall well-being in that country.
- Reduces any shortages in labor
- Get easy labor who are keen to take up low paid, and low skilled jobs. Migrants are often made to do several types of unskilled jobs at a very little remuneration. Such work does not add any value to their skillset. These skilled migrants are often contented to render their services at little salary.
- Increases cost of services that includes education, and health care facilities
- Makes the country overcrowded
- The arrival of employees in urban locations increases competition in jobs, housing, academic amenities etc. More entry of people causes an increase in population. Such large population exert a lot of pressure on amenities and natural resources.
- Causes differences between different cultures, and religions
- Immigrants can put risks on the career prospects of the locals. It can be possible that they might lose their job due to incoming employees.
- Housing, education, health, and several other essential amenities suffer due to increase in the population. Cost of availing these facilities also rises that makes it difficult for common man to obtain them.
- International migration also leads to breakdown of traditions, and culture in a country. The existing cultures get negatively altered due to diversity. It sometimes leads to lapse of existing healthy ways of living. Sometimes with influx of bad people, it can lead to emergence of crime incidents.
On the personal level
A person who migrates to another country benefits him in several ways. These are:
- Migration helps to improve the living standards of the person, and his family. He gets in touch to a richer and diverse culture.
- Migration helps in enhancing the social life of the person. He/she learns a lot about the culture, tradition, languages, and customs, of the new place. Diversity assists tradition, and culture to loosen grip on discrimination, and racism. People pay more value to human rights, and humanity in general.
- Children who migrate for better education get better higher education opportunities in the new country.
- There has been seen incidences when migrants get exploited in the new country. They are made to do jobs at a very low wage.
- Sometimes, immigration can even fuel discrimination, and racism in people.